For generations, gardening has been a popular pastime in the UK. Regardless of whether it is an ornamental or vegetable garden, the act of sculpting the land around us to create our very own oasis of tranquillity provides a sense of comforting accomplishment, as well as a great way to express creativity and individuality.
However, gardeners across the country must remain vigilant as there are many threats which seek to destroy our hard work. These forces of gardening darkness come in the form of pests and diseases. We have written about garden pests and how to deal with them before, so be sure to check our blog if there are any critters feasting on your garden. It is now time to arm yourself with the knowledge to identify and treat a common garden disease – box blight.
What is box blight?
Box blight is a disease which affects Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens). This humble plant can be found throughout the UK – from magnificently sculpted topiary to the common garden hedge. The disease is caused by two types of fungi,Cylindrocladium buxicola and volutella buxi, working together (or independently)to attack the leaves and stems of the plant. Thankfully, it does not affect or kill the roots so, with the right box blight treatment, you don’t have to replace the entire plant.
What are the symptoms of box blight?
Both of these disease-inducing fungi display easy to spot symptoms. It is a good idea to check your plants on a regular basis and treat any affected areas as early as possible as box blight becomes increasingly difficult to deal with as time passes.
So, what does box blight look like?
The symptoms displayed depend on which fungus your plants are infected with.
- Cylindrocladium buxicola – in the early stages of the disease, the plants will have patchy areas of brown, withered leaves and, as it progresses, the affected areas will lose their leaves. Other signs of infection to look for are black-striped, or entirely blackened stems and a slender grey fungus on the underside of leaves.
- Volutella buxi – plants affected by this fungus will show areas of yellowed leaves, with pink spots underneath during the early stages. These leaves will also fall later on.
What are some methods to deal with box blight?
Box blight hedge treatment is a long and difficult task but, with patience and dedication, it can be done. Although, if the disease is too widespread, it may be best to destroy the infected plant and cultivate a healthy replacement instead.
Before we get started, there are measures you should take when treating box blight to reduce the chances of the infection spreading.
- Clean the tools when you are finished using them. You can use diluted household bleach, or methylated spirits.
- Wash the clothes you were wearing when tackling the infection.
- Remove any leaves or soil from the soles of your shoes.
Now that we’re ready, let’s move on to the box blight cure.
Step one. Taking back control.
Since box blight attacks the leaves and stems of plants, the first task is removing the infected areas to stop the disease from spreading. It is vital that you do this during a dry period. If you prune the infected areas while the plant is wet or there is rain forecast, the disease will spread rapidly.
Knowing how much of a plant to remove can be tricky in a lot of situations but, with box blight, there are three straightforward options. Which option you choose depends on the severity of the infection. For an easier clean up later, place a plastic sheet around the bottom of the plant you’re saving.
If you have noticed the infection during the early stages, this is the option for you. Simply cut the infected stems back until they are brown on the outside and vivid green beneath the bark. Once you reach the healthy parts of the plant, cut it back a little bit more.
When faced with a large-scale infection, the best course of action is to reduce the height of the plant by half, or until there are no blackened stems.
If the infection is too severe and you don’t want to replace the plant, the only option is to cut the entire plant down until it is just a stump.
Regardless of which option you choose, when you’re finished pruning, it is a good idea to spray the remainder of the plant with fungicide to kill off any lingering spores.
There are also some box blight commercial treatments available. These specialised fungicides are perfect if the affected areas are too small to prune.
Step two. The clean-up.
- Remove any severed stems or leaves that are trapped inside the plant.
The dead leaves around the base of the plant provide a perfect breeding ground for fungi, so clear away all of the leaves under and around the plant. Be meticulous as it doesn’t take many leaves to restart the infection. Spores from either type of fungi are capable of surviving in the soil for an astoundingly long time. Because of this, you will have to remove and replace a layer of soil from around and under the plant.
- Disposal of infectious materials.
Once you’ve collected all of the infected plant cuttings and leaves, you’ll need to get rid of them. The best method of disposal is to burn all of the cuttings but, if you are unable to burn them, you can seal them in a bag and put it in the bin. You should avoid adding any of the infected plant parts to a compost heap under any circumstances. This will only spread the fungus spores over a wider area.
And don’t forget to clean your tools.
How to prevent box blight in the future
After all of that hard work you did treating the blight, the last thing you want is for it to come back. The tips below will greatly decrease the chances of a box blight resurgence.
- The garden and its layout. To create the warm, breezy environment your boxwood plants can thrive in, make sure no other plants are growing within a radius of one foot. Also, keep any overhanging plants cut back as much as possible.
- Plant food. Using fertiliser in the spring will aid the plant’s post-winter recovery, but try not to use fertilisers with high concentrations of nitrogen. This can over-stimulate the growth of the plant and create the conditions for box blight to reappear.
- Water the base of the plant, not the overhead.
- Monitor your plants. Box blight can be a stubborn infection, so don’t be surprised if the infection flares up again after the first treatment. Check the recovering plant at least once a week so that you can quickly identify and treat any new signs of infection.
- Keep the ground under and around the plant clear of fallen leaves. Maintaining a tidy garden not only looks good, but will help prevent future box blight outbreaks.
Alternatives to boxwood
If these box hedge problems are too much to deal with, or you don’t have the time to treat and monitor a hedge, there are box blight-resistant alternatives. The following are excellent choices for replacing boxwood. They are just as easy to style and can be visually stunning.
- Golden barberry (Corallina compacta);
- Japanese holly “Golden gem” (Ilex crenata);
- Wilson’s honeysuckle (Lonicera nitida).
So, there we have it, your guide on how to identify and treat box blight. With this information, you are now ready to decide whether to rip out and replace the humble boxwood or tenderly nurture affected plants back to good health.
Did we miss anything? Do you have any tips for dealing with box blight? Let us know in the comments below or give us a shout on social media!
FIND YOUR FANTASTIC GARDENER NEAR YOU:
GARDENING MAINTENANCE IN LONDON